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School of Social and Political Science: Staff profiles


Hazel Gray

Hazel Gray
Dr Hazel Gray
Director, Centre of African Studies
5.26 Chrystal Macmillan Building 15a George Square Edinburgh UK EH8 9 LD
+44 (0)1316515534
Research Interests
Political economy of development, Political economy of institutions, Industrialization, Industrial policy, Heterodox economic theory, Social provisioning and economic change, Tanzania

Guidance and Feedback Hours

  • Wednesdays 14.00 - 16.00 during semester

Research Interests

My research interests concern the political economy of development in Africa, industrial policy and industrialization, state-business relations, institutions and economic performance, heterodox macroeconomics, socialism and post-socialism in Africa. My regional focus is on East Africa and I worked for three years at the Ministry of Finance in Tanzania. I have been involved in policy work with national and international development agencies on issues of economic transformation. I am co-chair of the journal Critical African Studies.

BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics (University of Oxford)
MSc Political Economy of Development, Department of Economics (SOAS)
PhD, Department of Economics, (SOAS)
I am interested in supervising PhD theses that focus on the following areas: Political economy of development, the state and economic development and change in Africa, industrialization and industrial policy in Africa, political economy of institutions in Africa, comparative political economy of Asia/Africa
Current PhD Students
Lauren Engels
Antonia Julich
Keskine Owusu Poku
Ian Russell
Stina Moldrup Wolff



Book Banner

Reviews of Turbulence and Order in Economic Development


'Studying Political Settlements in Africa' African Affairs 2017, 116, 464, 508 - 525 (P Behuria, L Burr and H Gray)

'Decolonising online development studies? Emancipatory aspirations and critical reflections - a case study' Third World Quarterly, 2017, 38 (2), 270 - 290 (S Spigel, H Gray, Gray, B Bompani, K Bardosh, J Smith)

'Access Orders and the 'New' New Institutional Economics of Development' Development and Change, (January 2016) 47, 1, 51 - 75 

'The Political Economy of Grand Corruption in Tanzania' African Affairs, 114, 456, (July 2015) 382 - 403,

'Industrial Policyand the Political Settlement in Tanzania:  Aspects of Continuity and Change Since Independence', Review of African Political Economy, 40.136 (2013), 185-201.

Book Chapters

'Tanzania: From Institutional Hiatus to the Return of Policy-Based Lending' in Jones et al  The Political Economy of Bank Regulation in Developing Countries: Risk and Reputation - Emily Jones - Oxford University Press (2020)

'Understanding and Deploying the Political Settlements Framework' in Dictionary of African Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press (2019)

‘Good Governance and Growth in Africa: What can we learn from Tanzania?' in V. Padayachaee (ed.), The Political Economy of Africa (London: Routledge, 2010) (with Mushtaq Khan).

Working Papers

'The political economy of the steel sector in Tanzania: power relations and patterns of decline and growth over time' Working Paper ACE SOAS Consortium, 2021

'The Political Economy of Banking Regulation in Tanzania' (2018) Working Paper for Navigating Global Banking Standards, Global Economic Governance Programme, University of Oxford

'Situating Social Policy in Economic Transformation: A Conceptual Framework' Background Paper for the Tanzania Human Development Report 2017. (mimeo, 2016, with Marc Wuyts)

'Reframing African political economy: clientelism, rents and accumulation as drivers of capitalist transformation', LSE International Development Working Paper Series, No. 159 (2014) (with Lindsay Whitfield).

 Policy Publications

2018 ‘Politics and Business in Tanzania – A Response’ Chapter 3 in Tanzania: Institutional Diagnostics edited by François Bourguignon and Sam Wangwe,

'The place of social policy in economic transformation' in Tanzania Human Development Report 2017. Ministry of Finance, UNDP, Economic and Social Research Foundation, Dar-es -Salaam, Chapter 2

Economic transformation in the making: going beyond growth’ In: Tanzania Human Development Report 2014: Economic Transformation for Human Development. Ministry of Finance, UNDP, Economic and Social Research Foundation, Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania, Chapter 2, 22-44. ISBN 9789987770007 (

‘Governance for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Empirical Evidence and New Directions Reviewed’. Background paper for the DFID/World Bank Conference on Governance for Economic Growth in Developing Countries: What Matters and Can We Measure It?  June 2007. Available at

‘State Weakness in Developing Countries and Strategies of Institutional Reform – Operational Implications for Anti-Corruption Policy and A Case Study of Tanzania’. Mushtaq Khan and Hazel Gray for DFID, UK, September 2006.

Topics interested in supervising

Political economy of development in Africa, economic development, industrial policy, governance and economic development, Tanzania, East Africa, state-business relations, political economy of institutions in Africa

If you are interested in being supervised by Hazel Gray, please see the links below for more information:

PhD In African Studies; PhD in International Development