School of Social and Political Science

Cristina Moreno Lozano

Job Title

PhD title: Optimizing antibiotics: Antibiotic stewardship, medical work and resistant microbes in public hospitals in democratic Spain


City (Address)


Country (Address)



I am trained as a microbiologist and medical anthropologist. I am now studying towards a PhD in the area of Science and Technology Studies.

Doctoral research project

My doctoral research explores how antibiotic stewardship programs (called Programas de Optimización de Antimicrobianos, or PROAs in Spanish) are designed and implemented by healthcare professionals in the context of democratic Spain (1970s-present) upon the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a public health problem. I aim to explore the notion of optimization in this context, how materials, infrastructures and labour are coordinated to that end, and how 'resistant' microbes emerge as knowledgable and governable in and through PROAs. In my research, I experiment with mixing ethnographic and historical methods, using the archive as an ethnographic and collaborative device in my fieldwork.

Current and recent academic projects

As part of my professional training as an Alice Brown Scholar, I take part in different academic projects within the School of Social and Political Science at the University, including:

January 2020-present. Managing Editor at the Medicine Anthropology Theory (MAT) journal.

June-November 2020. Research assistant, 'Domesticating Covid-19 Epidemiological Models', Centre for Biomedicine, Self and Society (CBSS), Usher Institute.

Sept 2019-Feb 2020. Archival researcher and writer with the student-led decolonial project UncoverED.

A bit more background

Before returning to Edinburgh and academia, I worked as an editorial assistant for the URV e-book series in Medical Anthropology, led by scholars at the Medical Anthropology Research Centre (MARC) at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Tarragona (Spain), and in digital communications and academic conference organisation, with colleagues at AIBR, the Network for Iberoamerican Anthropologists.

Throughout my ongoing doctoral training, I am interested in training and participating in conversations around digital methods, open-access publishing, data labs, and the infrastructures of academic research.


- Student Member of the Centre for Biomedicine, Self and Society, at the Usher Institute (Medical School), University of Edinburgh.

- Member of the student group Students of Medical Anthropology (SoMA) at the Edinburgh Centre for Medical Anthropology (EdCMA), University of Edinburgh.


2019 - onwards. PhD in Science and Technology Studies - University of Edinburgh (part-time)

2017. M Sc in Medical Anthropology and Global Health - Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona and Universitat de Barcelona

2014. B Sc (Honours) in Biomedical Sciences (Infectious Disease) - University of Edinburgh

Awards and Funding

2019. Alice Brown Doctoral Scholarship, School of Social and Political Science, University of Edinburgh (2019-2025)

2019. La-Caixa INPhINIT Retaining Doctoral Fellowship (2019-2022) (not accepted)

2017. Postgraduate Student Excellence Award, School of Humanities, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona)

2015. Postgraduate Professional Training Fellowship (Academic publishing), University Rovira i Virgili (2015-2016)

Teaching Experience


Tutor, UG/PG course Contagion (SCAN10070)

Guest Lecturer, 'Governing Microbes', UG course Science, Nature and Environment (semester 2)

Guest Lecturer, 'UncoverED, and a colonial history of Kings' Buildings', PG course Social Dimensions of Systems and Synthetic Biology (PGSP11476)


Tutor, UG course Science, Nature and Environment (STIS08007).

PhD Project

PhD Title

Optimizing antibiotics: Antibiotic stewardship, medical work and resistant microbes in public hospitals in democratic Spain

PhD Supervisors

My PhD project is supervised in collaboration between Science, Technology and Innovation Studies (STIS) and the Edinburgh Centre for Medical Anthropology (EdCMA), both within the School of Social and Political Science at the University of Edinburgh:

Lukas Engelmann (STIS)

Miguel García-Sancho (STIS)

Ian Harper (EdCMA, Social Anthropology)

PhD Overview

The purpose of this project is to investigate antibiotic stewardship in public hospitals in Spain, which are known as Programas de Optimización de Antimicrobianos (PROAs). Antibiotic stewardship is one of the main biomedical interventions being implemented to mitigate the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) across the world. This project aims to investigate PROAs both historically and ethnographically. Fieldwork will start in 2021, and run until 2024. As a social researcher, I am interested in understanding how doctors, clinical microbiologists, hospital pharmacists and other hospital professionals coordinate their work to design and implement PROAs by using technologies, materials and work relationships available to them in their workplaces. The main theoretical questions I will address during this project concern how the objective of optimization is achieved in Spanish antibiotic stewardship, and how resistant microbes are governed by means of these interventions.



Forthcoming. Moreno Lozano, C. ¿Cuántos son demasiados? Reflexiones alrededor del uso y consumo de antibióticos. (How many are too many? Reflections on the use and consumption of antibiotics). DisparidadesRevista de Antropologia. In press

Moreno Lozano, C & Flores Martos, JA. 2019. The Challenges of Storytelling Today. Interview with Paul Stoller. AIBR, Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana 14(2): 191-203. (Spanish translation here).

Academic commentaries and blogs

Moreno Lozano, C. 2020. Biography of Azar Besharat-Moayeri, UncoverED, 15/12/2020.

Moreno Lozano, C. 2020. Commentary: A problem in the making: visualising AMR and antibiotic use in Spain. AMIS Hub, 01/05/2020.

Moreno Lozano, C. 2020. Seeing COVID-19, or a Visual Journey Through the Epidemic in Three Acts. Somatosphere, 05/04/2020.

Book reviews

Moreno Lozano, C. 2019. ‘Biology In Culture’ Review: Sara Kenney and John Watkiss, 2017. Surgeon X, Vol.1-6: The Path of Most Resistance. Journal of the History of Biology 55(1)

Moreno Lozano, C. 2018. Book Review of Greene, JA, Condrau, F, and Siegel Watkins, E (Eds.) 2016. Therapeutic Revolutions. Pharmaceuticals and Social Change in the Twentieth Century. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Medicine Anthropology Theory 5(4): 125-128.

Newspapers and public engagement (Spanish)

2020. Cuarentenas, mascarillas o higiene: coronavirus, siempre en sociedadEl Salto Diario Newspaper, 05/03/2020.

2019. Cómics y Resistencia a los antibióticos: Surgeon X. SEM@FORO, Revista de la Sociedad Española de Microbiología, 67.

2019. Hasta la vista, antibiótico! El Salto Diario Newspaper, 10/08/2019.

2018. ¿Estamos ante la muerte de la revolución antibiótica? Revista FUA, num 1: 15-20. ISSN 2603-638X.

Research interests

Research interests

Science & technology studies, medical and veterinary anthropology, Antimicrobial resistance, history of medicine