School of Social and Political Science

Hazel Gray

Job Title

Director, Centre of African Studies. Senior Lecturer in African Studies and International Development

Profile picture

Room number


Building (Address)

Chrystal Macmillan Building

Street (Address)

15a George Square

City (Address)


Country (Address)


Post code (Address)

EH8 9 LD

Research interests

Research interests

Political economy of development, Political economy of institutions, industrialisation, Industrial policy, Heterodox economic theory, Social provisioning and economic change, Tanzania

My research interests concern the political economy of development in Africa, industrial policy and industrialisation, state-business relations, institutions and economic performance, heterodox macroeconomics, socialism and post-socialism in Africa. My regional focus is on East Africa and I worked for three years at the Ministry of Finance in Tanzania. I have been involved in policy work with national and international development agencies on issues of economic transformation. I am co-chair of the journal Critical African Studies.

Topics interested in supervising

Political economy of development in Africa, economic development, industrial policy, governance and economic development, Tanzania, East Africa, state-business relations, political economy of institutions in Africa

If you are interested in being supervised by Hazel Gray, please see the links below for more information:



  • BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics (University of Oxford)
  • MSc Political Economy of Development, Department of Economics (SOAS)
  • PhD, Department of Economics, (SOAS)


I am interested in supervising PhD theses that focus on the following areas: Political economy of development, the state and economic development and change in Africa, industrialization and industrial policy in Africa, political economy of institutions in Africa, comparative political economy of Asia/Africa

Current PhD Students


  • Antonia Juelich
  • Keskine Owusu Poku



Reviews of Turbulence and Order in Economic Development


'Studying Political Settlements in Africa' African Affairs 2017, 116, 464, 508 - 525 (P Behuria, L Burr and H Gray)

'Decolonising online development studies? Emancipatory aspirations and critical reflections - a case study' Third World Quarterly, 2017, 38 (2), 270 - 290 (S Spigel, H Gray, Gray, B Bompani, K Bardosh, J Smith)

'Access Orders and the 'New' New Institutional Economics of Development' Development and Change, (January 2016) 47, 1, 51 - 75 

'The Political Economy of Grand Corruption in Tanzania' African Affairs, 114, 456, (July 2015) 382 - 403,

'Industrial Policyand the Political Settlement in Tanzania:  Aspects of Continuity and Change Since Independence', Review of African Political Economy, 40.136 (2013), 185-201.

Book chapters

'Tanzania: From Institutional Hiatus to the Return of Policy-Based Lending' in Jones et al The Political Economy of Bank Regulation in Developing Countries: Risk and Reputation - Emily Jones - Oxford University Press (2020) 

'Understanding and Deploying the Political Settlements Framework' in Dictionary of African Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press (2019)

‘Good Governance and Growth in Africa: What can we learn from Tanzania?' in V. Padayachaee (ed.), The Political Economy of Africa (London: Routledge, 2010) (with Mushtaq Khan).

Working Papers

'The political economy of the steel sector in Tanzania: power relations and patterns of decline and growth over time' Working Paper ACE SOAS Consortium, 2021

'The Political Economy of Banking Regulation in Tanzania' (2018) Working Paper for Navigating Global Banking Standards, Global Economic Governance Programme, University of Oxford

'Situating Social Policy in Economic Transformation: A Conceptual Framework' Background Paper for the Tanzania Human Development Report 2017. (mimeo, 2016, with Marc Wuyts)

'Reframing African political economy: clientelism, rents and accumulation as drivers of capitalist transformation', LSE International Development Working Paper Series, No. 159 (2014) (with Lindsay Whitfield).

Policy publications

2018 ‘Politics and Business in Tanzania – A Response’ Chapter 3 in Tanzania: Institutional Diagnostics edited by François Bourguignon and Sam Wangwe,

'The place of social policy in economic transformation' in Tanzania Human Development Report 2017. Ministry of Finance, UNDP, Economic and Social Research Foundation, Dar-es -Salaam, Chapter 2

Economic transformation in the making: going beyond growth’ In: Tanzania Human Development Report 2014: Economic Transformation for Human Development. Ministry of Finance, UNDP, Economic and Social Research Foundation, Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania, Chapter 2, 22-44. ISBN 9789987770007 (

‘Governance for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Empirical Evidence and New Directions Reviewed’. Background paper for the DFID/World Bank Conference on Governance for Economic Growth in Developing Countries: What Matters and Can We Measure It?  June 2007. Available at

‘State Weakness in Developing Countries and Strategies of Institutional Reform – Operational Implications for Anti-Corruption Policy and A Case Study of Tanzania’. Mushtaq Khan and Hazel Gray for DFID, UK, September 2006.

Staff Hours and Guidance

Wednesdays 14.00 - 16.00 during semester

Publications by user content

Publication Research Explorer link
Wood AK, Symons K, Falisse JB, Gray H, Mkony A. Can lecture capture contribute to the development of a community of inquiry in online learning? Distance Education. 2021 Feb 1;42(1):126-144.
Gray H. Tanzania: From institutional hiatus to the return of policy-based lending. In Jones E, editor, The Political Economy of Bank Regulation in Developing Countries: Risk and Reputation. Oxford University Press. 2020. p. 196-217
Gray H. Understanding and deploying the political settlement framework. In Cheeseman N, Abrahamsen R, Khadiagala G, Medie P, Riedl R, editors, The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics. Oxford University Press. 2019
Gray H. Turbulence and Order in Economic Development: Economic Transformation in Tanzania and Vietnam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. 272 p.
Gray H, Behuria P, Buur L. Studying political settlements in Africa. African Affairs. 2017 Jun 14;116(464):508-525.
Spiegel S, Gray H, Bompani B, Bardosh K, Smith J. Decolonising Online Development Studies? Emancipatory Aspirations and Critical Reflections: A Case Study. Third World Quarterly. 2017 Feb 1;38(2):270 - 290.
Gray H, Wuyts M. Situating Social Policy in Economic Transformation: THDR 2017: Background Paper No. 4 ESRF Discussion Paper 66. Dar es Salaam: Economic and Social Research Foundation. 2016 Dec 1, p. 1-24.
Gray H. Access orders and the ‘new’ new institutional economics of development. Development and change. 2016 Jan 31;47(1):51-75.
Gray H. The political economy of grand corruption in Tanzania. African Affairs. 2015 Jul 31;114(456):382-403.
Gray H, Whitfield L. Reframing African political economy: Clientelism, rents and accumulation as drivers of capitalist transformation. In LSE International Development Working Paper Series. Vol. 159. 2014. 14-159
Gray H. Industrial Policy and the Political Settlement in Tanzania: Aspects of Continuity and Change since Independence. Review of African Political Economy. 2013 Jun;40(136):185.