School of Social and Political Science

Laura Cram

Job Title

Professor of European Politics and Director of NRLabs Neuropolitics Research

Photo

Room number

Room 2 02, Flat 2F2

Street (Address)

18 Buccleuch Place

City (Address)

Edinburgh

Country (Address)

UK

Post code (Address)

EH8 9LD

Background

Laura has an established track-record of research on the European Union policy process and on European Union Identity. She held a Senior Fellowship on the UK in a Changing Europe programme from 2015-2016 and is currently a Research Leader on this programme. She has a particular interest in the neuropolitics of identity and the neuropolitics of public policy and was awarded a prestigious ESRC transformative research grant to extend her research into the field of neuropolitics.  She is exploring the insights this neuropolitical approach can offer into contemporary debates on the EU as part of her fellowship. Her lab, NRLabs neuropolitics research, uses experimental approaches, including fMRI brain scanning, survey experiments, behavioural games, face-emotion coding, eye-tracking, physiological hormone  testing and big data analysis to examine, for example, the meaning and effect of identity(ies) in multi-level polities.  She has previously held posts at the Universities of Strathclyde, Sheffield and Warwick.

Qualifications:

MSc Human Cognitive Neuropsychology

PhD European Public Policy, University of Warwick.

MSc European Social Policy Analysis, Universities of Bath, Maynooth and Tilburg.

BA (Combined Honours), Modern Greek and Political Science, University of Birmingham.

Selected publications:

Clare Llewellyn and Laura Cram  ‘Brexit? Analyzing Opinion on the UK-EU Referendum within Twitter’ Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM-16), 17-20 May 2016**.

Clare Llewellyn and Laura Cram and Adrian Favero  "Avoiding the Drunkard's Search: Investigating Collection Strategies for Building a Twitter Dataset"Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL2016), 19 -23 June 2016, Rutgers University, Newark. 

(2015) Stratos Patrikios and Laura Cram 'Better the devil you know: Threat effects and attachment to the European Union' Comparative European Politics advance online publication 19 January 2015; doi: 10.1057/cep.2014.54

(2014) with Stratos Patrikios, 'Visual Primes and EU Identity: Designing Experimental Research' in Kennet Lynggaard, Ian Manners and Karl Köfgren (eds) Research Methods in European Union Studies Basingstoke: Palgrave.

(2012) ‘Does the EU Need A Navel? Implicit and Explicit Identification with the European Union’ Journal of Common Market Studies. 50:1, 71-86

(2011) ‘The Importance of the Temporal Dimension: New Modes of Governance as a Tool of Government’, Journal of European Public Policy, 18:5, 636-653.

(2011) ‘In the Shadow of Hierarchy: Governance as a Tool of Government’ in Dehousse, R (ed) The ‘Community Method’: Obstinate or Obsolete London: Palgrave, 151-165

(2009) 'Identity and Integration Theory: Diversity as a Source of Integration' Nations and Nationalism, 15:1, 109-129. In L Cram (ed) themed section Identity, Integration Theory and the European Union

(2009) 'From integration by stealth to good governance? EU Social
Policy in Historical Perspective' in Verdun, A & Toemmel, I: Governance and Policy- Making in the European Union: Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner

(2006) ‘Inventing the People: in Smismans, S (ed) Civil Society and Legitimate European Governance' Aldershot: Edward Elgar

(2001) ‘Imagining the Union: A Case of Banal Europeanism’ in Wallace, H (ed) Whose Europe: Interlocking Dimensions of Integration London: Macmillan

Knowledge Exchange:

Laura is committed to the wider dissemination of her academic work to policy-makers and to the wider public and this is a key part of her ESRC fellowship on the UK in a Changing Europe programme. She acts as 'Brexpert' for the Scottish Federation of Housing Associations. She is a regular media commentator. Recent reports on her group's work can be viewed on the BBC Daily Politics Show and as part of the BBC MindGames documentary http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04fgqzd. She was Special Advisor to Scottish Parliament, European and External Relations Committee, on the Inquiry into the Impact of the Treaty of Lisbon on Scotland.  Dec 2009- June 2010 ((http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/s3/committees/europe/reports-10/eur10-04-01.htm). She also initiated and led the Strathclyde/BBC Mood of the Nation Quiz http (Laura Cram (P.I.), Stratos Patrikios and James Mitchell). Launched in collaboration with BBC Scotland, this attracted almost 10500 participants. It was widely disseminated on Facebook, twitter and the internet, and was featured on BBC Scotland Sunday Politics, 29 April 2012; BBC Scotland Daily Politics, 9 May 2012; BBC Daily Politics, 15 May 2012.http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-17885963

Teaching

Laura convenes the honours level Neuropolitics class as well as contributing to the MSc level class International Politics of the European Union and to the Theory and Practice graduate class. 

Research interests

Research interests

European public policy, European identity, Neuropolitics of identity, Neuropolitics of public policy, Experimental research, fMRI studies, Physiological studies, Behavioural games, Identity triggers, National identity, Symbols, Brexit processes, Scotland and EU

Research projects and research group activities:

Laura is Principal Investigator examining how insights from psychology, information science and cognitive neuroscience can help to explain poitical behaviour and policy processes. The importance of implicit identity is a particular interest. Her lab examines, for example, how exposure to everyday reminders of territorial belonging (eg. to state-related symbols on coins, driving licenses and mundane functional objects) or the presence of national identity triggers, such as flags, might shape public attitudes and behaviours.

Current and recent projects include:

Economic and Social Research Council (L. Cram (PI), A. Moore (Co-I), Full Fact (partner)),  Citizens' Expectations on Brexit Outcomes: 'Fact' Transmission and Persuasive Power in a Digital World 1 April 2017 - 30 September 2018. 

Economic and Social Research Council, Senior Fellow UK in a Changing Europe Programme (L Cram), 'The European Union in the Public Imagination: maximising the impact of transdisciplinary insights' I June 2015 - 31 Aug 2016.

Economic and Social Research Council, Transformative Research Grant (L Cram) ‘Physiology, Identity and Behaviour: A Neuropolitics Approach’ 1 Sep 2013 - 28 Feb 2015.

British Academy (L Cram (P.I.), S Patrikios and J Mitchell) 'The Impact of Subliminal Exposure to National Symbols on Attitudes to the Constitutional Status of Scotland', 1 July 2012 - 30 June 2014.

  • This study, funded by the British Academy, was the first to assess, in an experimental framework, the extent to which implicit exposure to UK and Scottish identity triggers provokes a shift in political attitudes, specifically in attitudes towards the constitutional status of Scotland. The study evaluated the extent to which exposure to implicit visual cues that raise the salience of either Scotland or the UK can shape attitudes to Scotland’s constitutional status. In a public opinion experiment conducted online by YouGov, we examined how exposure to symbols associated with the United Kingdom, symbols associated with Scotland or symbols associated with Scottish nationalism affect public attitudes to Scotland’s constitutional status. 

    Research team: Professor Laura Cram (PI), University of Edinburgh; Dr Stratos Patrikios, University of Strathclyde; Professor James Mitchell, University of Edinburgh. 

    Thank you to all who participated in this research.

Economic and Social Research Council (L Cram (P.I.), J Mitchell & S Patrikios), ’ Implicit Triggers, Identity(ies) and Attitudes to the European Union: An Experimental Approach’, December 2010 – 30 November 2011.

Supervision

Laura has supervised a wide range of PhDs. All of these have completed within the recommended 4 year registration period and many now occupy academic posts or public research positions. She is interested in supervising projects on: European identity; banal Europeanism; the neuropolitics of both identity and public policy; physiology, behaviour and identity; implicit identity triggers; experimental approaches to identity and public policy; EU social policy; EU civil society; EU public policy; EU governance and the EU policy process.

Publications by user content

Publication Research Explorer link
Moore A, Hong S, Cram L. Trust in information, political identity and the brain: An interdisciplinary fMRI study. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2021 Feb 22;376(1822). https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0140
Llewellyn C, Cram L, Hill R, Favero A. For Whom the Bell Trolls: Shifting Troll Behaviour in the Twitter Brexit Debate. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. 2019 Sep 1;57(5):1148-1164. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12882
Cram L, Moore A, Olivieri V, Suessenbach F. Fair is fair, or is it? Territorial triggers influence ultimatum game behaviour. Political Psychology. 2018 Dec 12;39(6):1233-1250. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12543
Llewellyn C, Cram L, Favero A, Hill RL. Russian Troll Hunting in a Brexit Twitter Archive. In JCDL 2018 - Proceedings of the 18th ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2018. p. 361-362 https://doi.org/10.1145/3197026.3203876
Cram L. Brexit and Belonging: Empathy, Voice and Moral Authority. In Hassan G, Gunson R, editors, Scotland, the UK and Brexit: A Guide to the Future. Edinburgh: Luath Press. 2017
Llewellyn C, Cram L. Distinguishing the Wood from the Trees: Contrasting Collection Methods to Understand Bias in a Longitudinal Brexit Twitter Dataset. In Proceedings of the Eleventh International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. The AAAI Press. 2017. (International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media).
Cram L, Hong S, Moore A, Roberts N, Krasoulis A, Pernet CR et al. fMRI study of social exclusion and national identity using a cyberball paradigm. In Proceedings of 26th International Behavioural Neuroscience Society (IBNS). International Behavioural Neuroscience Society. 2017
Patrikios S, Cram L. Better the devil you know: Threat effects and attachment to the European Union. Comparative European Politics. 2016 Nov 18;14(6):717-734. https://doi.org/10.1057/cep.2014.54
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Imagining Europe: A Social Media Gallery of Images About the EU Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Summer Conferences The UK in a Changing Europe. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). What Did Social Media Tell Us About the UK’s EU Referendum? Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Cram L (Author), Llewellyn C (Author). If Twitter is the Medium of the Underdog, Are the ‘Reluctant Remainers’ Poised to Bite? Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Cram L (Author). The Referendum Will Not Bring an End to the UK’s Debate on the EU Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C, Cram L, Favero A. Avoiding the drunkard's search: Investigating collection strategies for building a Twitter dataset. In JCDL '16 Proceedings of the 16th ACM/IEEE-CS on Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. New York: ACM. 2016. p. 205-206 https://doi.org/10.1145/2910896.2925433
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). The Silent Majority or Just Under-Represented? Social Media and the EU Referendum Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C, Cram L. Brexit? Analyzing Opinion on the UK-EU Referendum within Twitter. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Images of Europe Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Neuropolitics Research Lab Launch The UK in a Changing Europe. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Your Image of the EU: Launch of #myimageoftheEU Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Exploring Bias: Comparing Approaches for Collecting Twitter Data Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Brexit? Contrasting Opinion on the UK’s EU Referendum Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Remain camp is losing the hashtag battle in the twittersphere The UK in a Changing Europe. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Twitter Sentiment Analysis on the UK’s EU Membership Edinburgh: European Futures. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). What, why, when and how of building a Twitter archive to study a referendum 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Images of Europe The UK in a Changing Europe. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). #myimageoftheEU The UK in a Changing Europe. 2016.
Cram L, Patrikios S. European Union Symbols under Threat: Identity Considerations. In Kaina V, Pawel Karolewski I, Kuhn S, editors, European identity revisited: new approaches and recent empirical evidence . London: Routledge. 2016. p. 61-70
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). The results are in -- the UK will #BREXIT 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). #myimageoftheEU: A social media gallery of images about the European Union. The UK in a Changing Europe. 2016.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). EU Referendum Campaign Groups: Strategies on Twitter Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Getting the Message Across in the Twittersphere: How Remain and Leave Use Hashtags Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Cram L (Author). How Remain and Leave camps use #hashtags The UK in a Changing Europe. 2015.
Cram L (Author). Message from Cameron’s Speech – Still an Awkward Partner Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Cram L (Author), Kelly O (Author), Nic Shuibhne N (Author), Spaventa E (Author), Lock T (Author), Keating M (Author). Reaction: The UK’s EU Renegotiation Demands Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Imagining the EU: Words Associated with the EU and Europe Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). #ImagineEurope at the Turing Summit Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). The Use of #Migrant and #Refugee on Twitter Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Building a Twitter Dataset to Find Out How People View the EU Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Cram L (Author). The Idea of Europe Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Cram L (Author). Imagining the European Union Edinburgh: European Futures. 2015.
Cram L, Moore A, Skewes J, Roepstorff A, Prkachin K, Roberts N. Implicit indicators of national identity modulate brain activation when processing empathy for in-group and out-group members in pain. 2015. Abstract from BNA 2015 Festival of Neuroscience, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Cram L, Patrikios S. Visual primes and European Union identity: Designing experimental research. In Lynggaard K, Manners I, Lofgren K, editors, Research Methods in European Union Studies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 2015. p. 184-205. (Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics). https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137316967
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). EU Twitter Sentiment Analysis: Analysis of the sentiment in the twittersphere towards the UK leaving or remaining in the EU 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Tweet Beginnings: An analysis of how the EU Leave and Remain camps are using Twitter 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). #ImagineEurope at the Turing Summit 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). Building a Twitter Dataset to Find out How People View the EU 2015.
Llewellyn C (Author), Cram L (Author). The use of #migrant and #refugee in Twitter: Twitter analysis of the terms above within a dataset collected from 7-Aug-2015 until 11-Sep-2015 2015.
Cram L, Skewes J, Hong S, Jegindo E-M, Moore A, Prkachin K et al. Effect of Implicit Indicators of National Identity on Brain Activation When Viewing In-Group and Out-Group Members in Pain. 2015. Abstract from ESMRMB 2015, 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10334-015-0487-2
Cram L, Moore A, Skewes J, Nicol K, Roepstorff A, Prkachin K et al. Implicit nationality primes modulate brain activation when processing another person’s experience of pain.’ British Neuroscience Festival, Edinburgh. 2015. Abstract from BNA 2015 Festival of Neuroscience, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Cram L. Does the EU Need a Navel? Implicit and Explicit Identification with the European Union. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. 2012 Jan;50(1):71-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.2011.02207.x
Cram L. Measuring Implicit Identification with the EU and its Effects. e-international relations. 2011 Nov 20.
Cram L. In the Shadow of Hierarchy: Governance as a Tool of Government. In Dehousse R, editor, The 'Community Method': Obstinate or Obsolete?. London: Palgrave. 2011. p. 151-165. (Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics).
Cram L. Sussidiarietà, società civile e nuovi modelli di governance nell 'Unione europea: Verso una società sussidiaria? In Donati P, editor, Verso una società sussidiaria?. Bologna, Italy: Bononia University Press. 2011
Cram L. The Importance of the Temporal Dimension: New Modes of Governance as a Tool of Government. Journal of European Public Policy. 2011;18(5):636-653. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2011.586793
Cram L. Identity and European Integration: Diversity as a Source of Integration. Nations and Nationalism . 2009 Jan;15(1):109-128. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8129.2009.00367.x
Cram L. Introduction: Banal Europeanism: European Union Identity and National Identities in Synergy. Nations and Nationalism . 2009 Jan;15(1):101-108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8129.2009.00377.x
Cram L. From "Integration by Stealth" to "Good Governance" in EU Social Policy. In Verdun A, editor, Innovative Governance in the European Union: The Politics of Multilevel Policymaking. Boulder: Lynne Reiner. 2009. (Studies on the European Polity).
Cram L. EU-Civil Society Relations: The Impact of the EU on National Movements and National Identity. In Kohler K, De Bievre D, Maloney W, editors, Opening EU-Governance to Civil Society: Gains & Challenges. Vol. 5. University of Mannheim. 2008. (CONNEX Report Series).
Cram L. Inventing the people: Civil Society and Legitimate European Governance. In Smismans S, editor, Civil Society and Legitimate European Governance. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. 2006
Cram L, Bomberg E, Martin D. The EU's institutions: The European Union: How Does it Work? In Stubb A, editor, The European Union: How Does it Work?. Oxford, Uk: Oxford University Press. 2003
Cram L. Introduction to the special issue on the institutional balance and the future of the EU governance: the future of the union and the trap of the "nirvana fallacy". Governance. 2002 Jul;15(3):309-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/0952-1895.00190
Cram L. Governance 'to go': domestic actors, institutions and the boundaries of the possible. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. 2001 Nov;39(4):595-618. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00323
Cram L. Whither the commission? Reform, renewal and the issue-attention cycle. Journal of European Public Policy. 2001 Oct 1;8(5):770-786. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501760110083509
Cram L. Imagining the Union: a case of banal Europeanism: Interlocking Dimensions of Integration. In Wallace H, editor, Interlocking Dimensions of Integration. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. 2001. p. 233-246
Cram L. Integration theory and the study of the European policy process: towards a synthesis of approaches: European Union: Power and Policy-making. In Richardson J, editor, European Union: Power and Policy-making. London, UK: Routledge. 2001. p. 52-70
Cram L. Theories of integration: Policy-Making in the European Union. In Wallace W, editor, Policy-Making in the European Union. London: Routledge. 2001
Cram L. The new processes and structures of EU politics: Governing Europe. In Governing Europe. The Open University Press. 2000
Gruppioni C, Ciliegi P, Rowan-Robinson M, Cram L, Hopkins A, Cesarsky C et al. ISO ELAIS 1.4GHz survey (Gruppioni+, 1999). VizieR On-line Data Catalog. 1999 Aug 1;730:50297.
Cram L, Dinan D, Nugent N. Reconciling theory and practice: Developments in the European Union. In Nugent N, editor, Developments in the European Union. London: Macmillan. 1999. p. 3-22
Cram L. The European Commission: Developments in the European Union. In Nugent N, editor, Developments in the European Union. London: Macmillan. 1999. p. 44-61
Cram L, (ed.), Dinan D, (ed.), Nugent N, (ed.). Developments in the European Union. London: Macmillan, 1999.
Cram L, Dinan D, Nugent N. The evolving European Union: Developments in the European Union. In Nugent N, editor, Developments in the European Union. London: Macmillan. 1999. p. 353-366
Gruppioni C, Ciliegi P, Rowan-Robinson M, Cram L, Hopkins A, Cesarsky C et al. A 1.4-GHz survey of the southern European Large-Area ISO Survey region. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 1999 Apr 1;305(2):297-308. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02415.x
Gruppioni C, Ciliegi P, Rowan-Robinson M, Cram L, Hopkins A, Cesarsky C et al. A 1.4 GHz Survey of the Southern ELAIS Region. ArXiv. 1998 Dec 1, p. 12256.
Cram L. British social policy in european context: Developments in British Social Policy. In Pierson C, editor, Developments in British Social Policy. London: Macmillan. 1998. p. 260-275
Cram L. Institutions and collective action: European Level Collective Action. In Greenwood J, editor, European Level Collective Action. London: Routledge. 1998. p. 63-80
Cram L. Policy Making in the European Union: Conceptual Lenses and the Integration Process. London: Routledge, 1997.
Cram L, Greenwood J. European level business collective action: the study agenda ahead. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. 1996;34(2):449-463. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1996.tb00582.x
Cram L. Theories of integration: Policy-Making in the European Union. In Richardson J, editor, Policy-Making in the European Union. London: Routledge. 1996. p. 40-60
Cram L. Providing the catalyst for collective action? The EU institutions and euro-interests in EU social policy: Into Europe? Perspectives from Britain and Slovenia. In Cox T, editor, Into Europe? Perspectives from Britain and Slovenia. Ljubljana: Scientific Library Press. 1996. p. 339-362
Cram L. European business alliances in the area of information technology: European Casebook on Business Alliances. In Greenwood J, editor, European Casebook on Business Alliances. London: Prentice Hall. 1995. p. 23-37
Cram L. Women's political participation in greece since the colonels dictatorship: From democratic struggle to incorporation by the party state? Democratization. 1994;1(2):229-250. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510349408403389
Cram L. The European commission as a multi-organisation: Social policy and IT policy in the EU. Journal of European Public Policy. 1994;1(2):195-217.
Cram L. Calling the tune without paying the piper? Social policy regulation: The role of the commission in european community social policy. Policy and Politics. 1993 Apr 1;21(2):135-146. https://doi.org/10.1332/030557393782453899