School of Social and Political Science

Robin Williams

Job Title

Director - ISSTI

Photo
Robin Williams

Room number

Room 2.86

Building (Address)

Old Surgeons' Hall

Street (Address)

High School Yards

City (Address)

Edinburgh

Country (Address)

UK

Post code (Address)

EH1 1LZ

Research interests

Research interests

My personal research focuses on the social shaping of technology, highlighting the influence of a variety of actors on the design, implementation and use of ICT.  A major concern has been with enterprise systems and other large, complex information infrastructures.  The Biography of Artefacts perspective I am developing with Neil Pollock and other colleagues explores the co-evolution of technologies, practices and institutional arrangements. Our work has explained how standardized packaged solutions can be created that can successfully be implemented in many diverse organizations, and has highlighted the role of new types of player (such as Gartner industry analysts) in constituting and shepherding technology fields and markets. These insights are being applied further in the area of e-health, where, with colleagues in medicine we are now investigating the development and adoption of packaged solutions for e-prescribing in hospitals.

Another strand of research examines the role of interoperability standards in the emergence of new ICT infrastructures such as mobile broadband, and how China has become  a global player alongside Europe and the USA. Further work with Ian Graham is exploring the future internet. Emerging research initiatives around the digital economy include participation with Law on the AHRC funded CREATe project examining  copyright and new business models in the cultural  industries.

Alongside this is a body of work on risk governance and innovation of new and emerging science and technology, especially in relation to life sciences (where I am co-director of Innogen: the ESRC Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Innovation in Genomics). A recent collaboration with the Centre for Fire Safety Engineering, sponsored by the Ove Arup Foundation and Royal Academy of Engineering examines how better regulation and training could improve fire safety and better integrate it with other goals for our built environment (for example security, aesthetics, energy use).

PhD Topics

I supervise PhD students across the broad range of research areas outlined above, with special interest in: social learning/social shaping of technology and biography of artefacts and practices; standardisation and innovation; enterprise systems; e-health; information infrastructures; e-sciense; models of innovation interdisciplinary engagements promissory work and new and emerging science and technology

Background

As Director of the Institute for the Study of Science, Technology and Innovation, I promote the development, conduct and dissemination of interdisciplinary and social science research across many areas including:

  • Information and Communication Technologies (ICT);
  • Life Science Innovation
  • Environmental Innovation and Transition to a sustainable society

My research has involved over 50 external awards from research councils and the European Union. Much of this work is conducted in collaboration with other social scientists and with practitioners and specialists from across the Colleges of Science and Engineering and of Medicine/Veterinary Medicine.

Publications

How Industry Analysts Shape the Digital Future Oxford, Oxford University Press 2016, (Neil Pollock and Robin Williams)

Software and Organisations: The Biography of the Enterprise-Wide System -  Or how SAP Conquered the World, Routledge 2009 (Neil Pollock and Robin Williams)

Social Learning in Technological Innovation: Experimenting with Information and Communication Technologies, 2005, Edward Elgar (with James Stewart, Roger Slack)

Shaping Technology, Guiding Policy: Concepts, Spaces and Tools, 2002 Edward Elgar (edited with Knut H. Sørensen)

Policies for Cleaner Technology: A New Agenda for Government and Industry, 1999 Earthscan (with Tony Clayton and Graham Spinardi)

Exploring Expertise: Issues and Perspectives, 1998, Macmillan (co-edited with Wendy Faulkner and James Fleck) 

The Social Shaping of Information Superhighways: European and American Roads to the Information Society, Campus Verlag, 1997 (co-edited with Kubicek and Dutton)

Expertise and innovation: Information technology strategies in the financial services sector, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994 (R. Fincham, J. Fleck, R. Proctor, H. Scarbrough, M. Tierney and R. Williams)

Working Papers
  • Global Software and its Provenance [download]
  • Post Local Forms of Repair: The Case of Virtualised Technical Support [download]
  • Technology Choice and its Performance [download]
  • The Sociology of a Market Analysis Tool: How Industry Analysts Sort Vendors and Organise Markets [download]

Publications by user content

Publication Research Explorer link
Cresswell KM, Sullivan C, Theal J, Mozaffar H, Williams R. Concerted adoption as an emerging strategy for digital transformation of healthcare - lessons from Australia, Canada, and England. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2024 May 1;31(5):1211-1215. ocae034. Epub 2024 Feb 23. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocae034
Williams R, Anderson S, Cresswell K, Kannelønning MS, Mozaffar H, Yang X. Domesticating AI in medical diagnosis. Technology in Society. 2024 Mar;76:1-14. 102469. Epub 2024 Jan 26. doi: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2024.102469
Stiefel L, Currie M, Musiani F, Sandoz A, Silvast A, Williams R. Preface. First Monday. 2024 Feb 11;29(2). doi: 10.5210/fm.v29i2.13559
Vidmar M, Fleck J, Williams R. AI and data in engineering and innovation: Towards a sustainable future? In Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Engineering, Technology, and Innovation: Shaping the Future, ICE 2023. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2023. ( International ICE Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation (Online)). doi: 10.1109/ICE/ITMC58018.2023.10332336
Li P, Williams R, Gilbert S, Anderson S. Regulating Artificial Intelligence and machine learning-enabled medical devices in Europe and the United Kingdom. Law, Technology and Humans. 2023 Nov 21;5(2):94-113. doi: 10.5204/lthj.3073
Faric N, Hinder S, Williams R, Ramaesh R, Bernabeu MO, van Beek EJR et al. Early Experiences of Integrating an Artificial Intelligence-Based Diagnostic Decision Support System into Radiology Settings: A Qualitative Study. In Giacomini M, Stoicu-Tivadar L, Balestra G, Benis A, Bonacina S, Bottrighi A, Deserno TM, Gallos P, Lhotska L, Marceglia S, Pazos Sierra AC, Rosati S, Sacchi L, editors, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics: Telehealth Ecosystems in Practice. Proceedings of the EFMI Special Topic Conference 2023. Vol. 309. Amsterdam: IOS Press. 2023. p. 240-241. (Studies in Health Technology and Informatics ). doi: 10.3233/SHTI230787
Heeney C, Bouamrane M, Malden S, Cresswell K, Williams R, Sheikh A. Optimising ePrescribing in hospitals through the interoperability of systems and processes: a qualitative study in the UK, US, Norway and the Netherlands. Bmc medical informatics and decision making. 2023 Oct 11;23(1):211. doi: 10.1186/s12911-023-02316-y
Cresswell K, Rigby M, Magrabi F, Scott P, Brender J, Craven CK et al. The need to strengthen the evaluation of the impact of Artificial Intelligence-based decision support systems on healthcare provision. Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2023 Oct 1;136:104889. Epub 2023 Aug 12. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2023.104889
Baumgartner R, Arora P, Bath C, Burljaev D, Ciereszko K, Custers B et al. Fair and equitable AI in biomedical research and healthcare: Social science perspectives. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. 2023 Oct 1;144:1-9. 102658. Epub 2023 Sept 4. doi: 10.1016/j.artmed.2023.102658
Farič N, Hinder S, Williams R, Ramaesh R, Bernabeu MO, van Beek E et al. Early experiences of integrating an artificial intelligence-based diagnostic decision support system into radiology settings: a qualitative study. JAMIA: A Scholarly Journal of Informatics in Health and Biomedicine (JAMIA). 2023 Sept 25;ocad191. Epub 2023 Sept 25. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocad191
Cresswell KM, Anderson S, Montgomery C, Weir CJ, Atter M, Williams R. Evaluation of digitalisation in healthcare and the quantification of the “unmeasurable”. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2023 Sept 15. Epub 2023 Sept 15. doi: 10.1007/s11606-023-08405-y
Li P, Williams R, Gilbert S, Anderson S. Regulating AI/ML-enabled medical devices in the UK. In TAS '23: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Trustworthy Autonomous Systems. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). 2023. p. 1-10. 9. (ACM International Conference Proceeding Series). doi: 10.1145/3597512.3599704
Cresswell K, Hinder S, Sheikh A, Pontefract S, Watson NW, Price D et al. ePrescribing-Based Antimicrobial Stewardship Practices in an English National Health Service Hospital: Qualitative Interview Study Among Medical Prescribers and Pharmacists. JMIR formative research. 2023 Jun 6;7:e37863. e37863. doi: 10.2196/37863
Suh JH, Williams R. The complex temporal dynamics of an emerging infrastructure innovation: Revisiting the ‘failure’ of the ‘successful’ innovation of Wireless Broadband (WiBro) in South Korea. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 2023 May 30. Epub 2023 May 30. doi: 10.1080/09537325.2023.2216812
Constantin A, Atkinson M, Bernabeu MO, Buckmaster F, Dhillon B, McTrusty A et al. Optometrists' Perspectives Regarding Artificial Intelligence Aids and Contributing Retinal Images to a Repository: Web-Based Interview Study. JMIR Human Factors. 2023 May 25;10(5):1-9. e40887. Epub 2023 May 25. doi: 10.2196/40887
Gilbert S, Anderson S, Daumer M, Li P, Melvin T, Williams R. Learning From Experience and Finding the Right Balance in the Governance of Artificial Intelligence and Digital Health Technologies. Journal of medical Internet research. 2023 Apr 14;25(1):1-11. e43682. doi: 10.2196/43682
Weir CJ, Adamestam I, Sharp R, Ennis H, Heed A, Williams R et al. A complex ePrescribing-based Anti-Microbial Stewardship (ePAMS+) intervention for hospitals combining technological and behavioural components: protocol for a feasibility trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 2023 Jan 28;9(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s40814-022-01230-w
Cresswell KM, Anderson S, Mozaffar H, Elizondo Solano A, Geiger M, Williams R. Socio-Organizational Dimensions: The Key to Advancing the Shared Care Record Agenda in Health and Social Care. Journal of medical Internet research. 2023 Jan 26;25:e38310. e38310. doi: 10.2196/38310
Sheikh A, Coleman J, Chuter A, Williams R, Lilford R, Slee A et al. Electronic prescribing systems in hospitals to improve medication safety: A multimethods research programme. Programme Grants for Applied Research. 2022 Sept 30;10(7). doi: 10.3310/KSRS2009
Cresswell K, Sheikh A, Williams R. 'Managed convergence' in health system digitalisation. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2022 Aug 1;115(8):284-285. Epub 2022 May 12. doi: 10.1177/01410768221098274
Pollock N, Williams R, D'Adderio L. Figuring out IT markets: How and why industry analysts continuously launch, adjust and abandon categories. Information and Organisation. 2022 Mar;32(1):100389. Epub 2022 Feb 1. doi: 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2022.100389
Cresswell K, Domínguez Hernández A, Williams R, Sheikh A. Key Challenges and Opportunities for Cloud Technology in Health Care: Semistructured Interview Study. JMIR Human Factors. 2022 Jan 6;9(1):e31246. e31246. doi: 10.2196/31246
Cresswell K, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Hinder S, Nguyen HT, Krasuska M et al. Benefits realization management in the context of a national digital transformation initiative in English provider organizations. JAMIA: A Scholarly Journal of Informatics in Health and Biomedicine (JAMIA). 2021 Dec 20. Epub 2021 Dec 20. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab283
Krasuska M, Williams R, Sheikh A, Franklin B, Hinder S, TheNguyen H et al. Driving digital health transformation in hospitals: a formative qualitative evaluation of the English Global Digital Exemplar programme. BMJ Health & Care Informatics. 2021 Dec 17;28(1). doi: 10.1136/bmjhci-2021-100429
Atkinson M, Bernabeu MO, Buckmaster F, Constantin A, McTrusty A, Williams R. Scottish Optometry Pilot Study. 2021. 61 p.
Inglesant P, Holter CT, Jirotka M, Williams R. Asleep at the wheel? Responsible Innovation in quantum computing, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 2021 Oct 25. Epub 2021 Oct 25. doi: 10.1080/09537325.2021.1988557
Cresswell K, Sheikh A, Williams R. Accelerating health information technology capabilities across England’s National Health Service. The Lancet Digital Health. 2021 Sept 28. Epub 2021 Sept 28. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00145-X
Cresswell KM, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Krasuska M, Nguyen H, Hinder S et al. Inter-organisational knowledge sharing to establish digital health learning ecosystems: Qualitative evaluation of a national digital health transformation programme in England. Journal of medical Internet research. 2021 Aug 19;23(8):e23372. doi: 10.2196/23372
Cresswell K, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Krasuska M, The Nguyen H, Hinder S et al. Interorganizational Knowledge Sharing to Establish Digital Health Learning Ecosystems: Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Transformation Program in England. Journal of medical Internet research. 2021 Aug 19;23(8):e23372. doi: 10.2196/23372
Hinder S, Cresswell K, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Krasuska M, The Nguyen H et al. Promoting inter-organisational knowledge sharing: A qualitative evaluation of England's Global Digital Exemplar and Fast Follower Programme. PLoS ONE. 2021 Aug 2;16(8):e0255220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0255220
Cresswell K, Tahir A, Sheikh Z, Hussain Z, Domínguez Hernández A, Harrison E et al. Understanding Public Perceptions of COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps: Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Social Media Analysis. Journal of medical Internet research. 2021 May 17;23(5):e26618. doi: 10.2196/26618
Williams R, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Krasuska M, Nguyen H, Hinder S et al. Using Blueprints to promote interorganizational knowledge transfer in digital health initiatives—a qualitative exploration of a national change program in English hospitals. JAMIA: A Scholarly Journal of Informatics in Health and Biomedicine (JAMIA). 2021 Mar 11;ocab020. Epub 2021 Mar 11. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab020
Cresswell KM, Williams R, Sheikh A. Using cloud technology in health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Digital Health. 2021 Jan 1. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30291-0
Cresswell KM, Williams R, Sheikh A. Bridging the growing digital divide between NHS England's hospitals. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1. doi: 10.1177/0141076820974998
Wang, Kai, Shen X, Williams R. Sequencing BGI: The evolution of expertise and research organisation in the world’s leading gene sequencing facility. New Genetics and Society. 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25. doi: 10.1080/14636778.2020.1843148
Azodo I, Williams R, Sheikh A, Cresswell K. Opportunities and Challenges Surrounding the Use of Data From Wearable Sensor Devices in Health Care: Qualitative Interview Study. Journal of medical Internet research. 2020 Oct 22;22(10):e19542. doi: 10.2196/19542
Cresswell KM, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Krasuska M, Nguyen H, Hinder S et al. Formative independent evaluation of a digital change programme in the English National Health Service: Study protocol for a longitudinal qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2020 Oct 8;10(1). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041275
Cresswell K, Williams R, Carlile N, Sheikh A. Accelerating Innovation in Health Care: Insights From a Qualitative Inquiry Into United Kingdom and United States Innovation Centers. Journal of medical Internet research. 2020 Sept 25;22(9):e19644. doi: 10.2196/19644
Krasuska M, Williams R, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Heeney C, Lane W et al. Technological capabilities to assess digital excellence in hospitals in high performing healthcare systems: an international eDelphi exercise. Journal of medical Internet research. 2020 Aug 18;22(8):e17022. doi: 10.2196/17022
Krasuska M, Williams R, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Heeney C, Lane W et al. Technological capabilities to assess digital excellence in hospitals in high performing Health Care Systems: International eDelphi exercise. Journal of medical Internet research. 2020 Aug 18;22(8). doi: 10.2196/17022
Cresswell K, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Krasuska M, Nguyen HT, Hinder S et al. Interorganizational Knowledge Sharing to Establish Digital Health Learning Ecosystems: Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Transformation Program in England (Preprint). JMIR Publications. 2020 Aug 10. doi: 10.2196/preprints.23372
Cresswell KM, Williams R, Carlile N, Sheikh A. Why digitally-enabled health system transformation needs organizational, service, and social innovation as well as product innovation. BMJ Health & Care Informatics. 2020 Jul 22. doi: 10.1136/bmjhci-2020-100173
Cresswell K, Williams R, Sheikh A. Developing and Applying a Formative Evaluation Framework for Health Information Technology Implementations: Qualitative Investigation. Journal of medical Internet research. 2020 Jun 10;22(6):e15068. doi: 10.2196/15068
Cresswell KM, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Krasuska M, Nguyen H, Hinder S et al. Theoretical and methodological considerations in evaluating large-scale health information technology change programmes. BMC Health Services Research. 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05355-7
Vidmar M, Rosiello A, Vermeulen N, Williams R, Dines J. New space and agile innovation: Understanding transition to open innovation by examining innovation networks and moments. Acta astronautica. 2020 Feb 1;167:122-134. Epub 2019 Oct 24. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.09.029
Krasuska M, Williams R, Sheikh A, Franklin BD, Heeney C, Lane W et al. Technological Capabilities to Assess Digital Excellence in Hospitals in High Performing Health Care Systems: International eDelphi Exercise. 2019 Nov 20. doi: 10.2196/preprints.17022
Campagnolo G, Giannatou E, Franklin M, Stewart J, Williams R. Revolution remixed? The emergence of Open Content Film-making as a viable component within the mainstream film industry. Information, Communication and Society. 2019 Nov 10;22(13):1871-1888. Epub 2018 May 14. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2018.1465109
Williams R. The social shaping of technology (SST). In Pittinsky TL, editor, Science, Technology & Society. Cambridge University Press. 2019. p. 138-162 doi: 10.1017/9781316691489.006
Wiegel V, King A, Mozaffar H, Cresswell K, Williams R, Sheik A. A systematic analysis of the optimization of computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems: A qualitative study in English hospitals. Health Informatics Journal. 2019 Sept 30;1460458219868650. Epub 2019 Sept 30. doi: 10.1177/1460458219868650
Hyysalo S, Pollock N, Williams R. Method matters in the social study of technology: Investigating the biographies of artifacts and practices. Science & Technology Studies. 2019 Sept 14;32(3):2-25. Epub 2018 Jul 12. doi: 10.23987/sts.65532
Cresswell K, Sheikh A, Krasuska M, Heeney C, Franklin BD, Lane W et al. Reconceptualising the digital maturity of health systems. The Lancet Digital Health. 2019 Sept 1;1(5):e200-e201. Epub 2019 Aug 22. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(19)30083-4
Lee F, Bier J, Christensen J, Engelmann L, Helgesson CF, Williams R. Algorithms as folding: Reframing the analytical focus. Big Data and Society. 2019 Aug 2;6(2):1-12. doi: 10.1177/2053951719863819
Campagnolo G, Nguyen H, Williams R. The temporal dynamics of technology promises in government and industry partnerships for digital innovation: The case of the Copyright Hub. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management. 2019 Aug;31(8):972-985. Epub 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1080/09537325.2019.1580358
Williams R. Why science and innovation policy needs Science and Technology Studies? In Simon D, Kuhlmann S, Stamm J, Canzler W, editors, Handbook of Science and Public Policy. Edward Elgar Publishing. 2019. p. 503-522. (Handbooks of Research on Public Policy series). doi: 10.4337/9781784715946
Shen X, Williams R, Zheng S, Liu Y, Li Y, Gerst M. Digital online music in China – a “laboratory” for business experiment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2019 Feb;139:235-249. Epub 2018 Nov 11. doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2018.10.022
Mozaffar H, Williams R, Cresswell K, Sheikh A. Anglicization of hospital information systems: Managing diversity alongside particularity . International journal of medical informatics. 2018 Nov;119:88-93. Epub 2018 Sept 14. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2018.09.014
Silvast A, Williams R, Hyysalo S, Rommetveit K, Raab C. Who ‘Uses’ Smart Grids? The Evolving Nature of User Representations in Layered Infrastructures. Sustainability. 2018 Oct 17;10(10):1-21. 3738. doi: 10.3390/su10103738
Williams R, Campagnolo G, Stewart J, Giannatou E, Franklin M. Revolution postponed? Tracing the development and limitations of open content filmmaking. Information, Communication and Society. 2018 Apr 25;1 -21. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2018.1464590
Pontefract SK, Hodson J, Slee A, Shah S, Girling AJ, Williams R et al. Impact of a commercial order entry system on prescribing errors amenable to computerised decision support in the hospital setting: a prospective pre-post study. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2018 Mar 23. Epub 2018 Mar 23. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2017-007135
Daneshvar farzanegan SH, Anderson S, Williams R, Mozaffar H. How can social media lead to co-production (co-delivery) of new services for elderly population? A qualitative study. JMIR Human Factors. 2018 Feb 12;5(1):29434014. doi: 10.2196/humanfactors.7856
Daneshvar H, Anderson S, Williams R, Mozaffar H. How can social media lead to co-production (co-delivery) of new services for the elderly population? A qualitative study. JMIR Human Factors. 2018 Feb 12;5(1):e5. doi: 10.2196/humanfactors.7856
Pollock N, D'Adderio L, Williams R, Leforestier L. Conforming or transforming? How organizations respond to multiple rankings. Accounting, Organizations and Society. 2018 Jan;64:55-68. Epub 2017 Nov 20. doi: 10.1016/j.aos.2017.11.003
on behalf of the NIHR ePrescribing Programme Team. Sustained user engagement in health information technology: The long road from implementation to system optimization of computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems for prescribing in hospitals in England. Health Services Research. 2017 Oct;52(5):1928-1957. Epub 2016 Oct 7. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12581
King A, Cresswell K, Coleman JJ, Pontefract SK, Slee A, Williams R et al. Investigating the ways in which health information technology can promote antimicrobial stewardship: a conceptual overview. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21. doi: 10.1177/0141076817722049
Cresswell KM, Mozaffar H, Lee L, Williams R, Sheikh A. Safety risks associated with the lack of integration and interfacing of hospital health information technologies: a qualitative study of hospital electronic prescribing systems in England. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2017 Jul 1;26:530-541. Epub 2016 Apr 1. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2015-004925
Korn M, Schorch M, Pipek V, Bietz M, Østerlund C, Procter R et al. E-infrastructures for research collaboration: The case of the social sciences and humanities. In CSCW 2017 - Companion of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. 2017. p. 415-420. (CSCW 2017 - Companion of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing). doi: 10.1145/3022198.3022655
Campagnolo G, Williams R, Alex B, Acerbi A, Chapple D. Sensitizing social data science: Combining empirical social research with computational approaches to the analysis of career data. 2017, p. 1-49. doi: 20.500.11820/5d00df5f-3359-4188-afc2-4ebadf8d826e
Mozaffar H, Cresswell K, Williams R, Bates DW, Sheikh A. Exploring the roots of unintended safety threats associated with the introduction of hospital ePrescribing systems and candidate avoidance and/or mitigation strategies: A qualitative study. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2017;26(9):722-733. bmjqs-2016-005879.R2. Epub 2017 Feb 7. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2016-005879
Mozaffar H, Williams R, Cresswell K, Pollock N, Morrison Z, Sheikh A. The challenges of implementing packaged hospital electronic prescribing and medicine administration systems in UK hospitals: Premature purchase of immature solutions? In Aanestad M, Grisot M, Hanseth O, Vassilakopoulou P, editors, Information Infrastructures within European Health Care: Working with the Installed Base. Vol. VI. Springer. 2017. p. 129-149. (Health Informatics). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-51020-0
Campagnolo G, Williams R, Alex B, Acerbi A, Chapple D. Sensitizing social data science: combining empirical social research with computational approaches to influencer detection. 2017.
Pollock N, Williams R, D’Adderio L. Generification as a strategy: How software producers configure products, manage user communities and segment markets. In Hyysalo S, Elgaard Jensen T, Oudshoorn N, editors, The New Production of Users: Changing Innovation Collectives and Involvement Strategies. 1 ed. New York: Routledge. 2016. p. 160-189 doi: 10.4324/9781315648088
Cresswell KM, Mozaffar H, Lee L, Williams R, Sheikh A. Workarounds to hospital electronic prescribing systems: a qualitative study in English hospitals. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2016 Apr 29. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2015-005149
NIHR ePrescribing Programme Team, Mozaffar H, Cresswell KM, Lee L, Williams R, Sheikh A. Taxonomy of delays in the implementation of hospital computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems for prescribing: a longitudinal qualitative study. Bmc medical informatics and decision making. 2016 Feb 24;16(1):25. doi: 10.1186/s12911-016-0263-x
Pollock N, Williams R. Who is really shaping the digital future? 2016.
Pollock N, Williams R. How Industry Analysts Shape the Digital Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. 388 p. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704928.001.0001
Williams R. Why is it difficult to achieve e-health systems at scale? Information, Communication and Society. 2016;19(4):540-550. Epub 2016 Jan 11. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2015.1118521
Williams R, Pollock N. Industry analysts – how to conceptualise the distinctive new forms of IT Market Expertise? Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal. 2015 Oct 19;28(8):1373-1399. Epub 2015 Oct 19. doi: 10.1108/AAAJ-03-2015-1989
Sheikh A, Lee L, Williams R. What does ePrescribing mean for patients? A case study of the perspectives of hospital renal patients. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. 2015 Oct;22(4). doi: 10.14236/jhi.v22i4.176
Campagnolo GM, Pollock N, Williams R. Technology as we do not know it: The extended practice of global software development. Information and Organization. 2015 Jul;25(3):150-159. Epub 2015 Jun 17. doi: 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2015.06.001
Pollock N, Williams R. The venues of high tech prediction: Presenting the future at industry analyst conferences. Information and Organisation. 2015 Apr;25(2):115-136. Epub 2015 Apr 22. doi: 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2015.04.001
Williams R, Liff S, Winskel M. Guest Editorial: second part: The Politics of Innovation for Environmental Sustainability: Celebrating the Contribution of Stewart Russell (1955–2011). Science & Technology Studies. 2015 Mar;28(1):3-9.
Hayward J, Buckingham S, Thomson F, Milne H, Sheikh A, Fernando B et al. How long does it take? A mixed methods evaluation of computer-related work in GP consultations. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. 2015;22(4):409-425. doi: 10.14236/jhi.v22i4.95
Lee L, Williams R, Sheikh A. How does joint procurement affect the design, customisation and usability of a hospital ePrescribing system? Health Informatics Journal. 2015;1-11. Epub 2015 Aug 10. doi: 10.1177/1460458215592915
Mozaffar H, Williams R, Cresswell K, Morrison Z, Bates DW, Sheikh A. The evolution of the market for commercial computerized physician order entry and computerized decision support systems for prescribing. JAMIA: A Scholarly Journal of Informatics in Health and Biomedicine (JAMIA). 2015. Epub 2015 Sept 2. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocv095
Shen X, Graham I, Williams R. Standards development as hybridization and capacity building. In Jacobs K, editor, Modern Trends Surrounding Information Technology Standards and Standardization within Organizations. IGI Global. 2014. p. 211-224 doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6332-9.ch012
Mozaffar H, Williams R, Cresswell K, Morison Z, Slee A. Erratum: Product diversity and spectrum of choice in hospital eprescribing systems in England( PLoS ONE (2014) 9, 4 (e92516) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092516). PLoS ONE. 2014 Jul 23;9(7):e103912. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103912
Johnson M, Mozaffar H, Campagnolo GM, Hyysalo S, Pollock N, Williams R. The Managed Prosumer: Evolving Knowledge Strategies in the Design of Information Infrastructures. Information, Communication and Society. 2014 Jun;17(7):795-813. Epub 2013 Aug 25. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2013.830635
ePrescribing Programme Team, Mozaffar H, Williams R, Cresswell K, Morrison Z, Slee A et al. Product Diversity and Spectrum of Choice in Hospital ePrescribing Systems in England. PLoS ONE. 2014 Apr 1;9(4):92516. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092516
Monteiro E, Pollock N, Williams R. Innovation in Information Infrastructures: Introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 2014 Apr;15(4):i-x.
Cresswell KM, Bates DW, Williams R, Morrison Z, Slee A, Coleman J et al. Evaluation of medium-term consequences of implementing commercial computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support prescribing systems in two 'early adopter' hospitals. JAMIA: A Scholarly Journal of Informatics in Health and Biomedicine (JAMIA). 2014 Jan 15;21(e2):e194-e202. doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2013-002252
Williams R, Liff S, Winskel M. Guest Editorial: The Politics of Innovation for Environmental Sustainability: Celebrating the Contribution of Stewart Russell (1955–2011). Science & Technology Studies. 2014;27(3):3-14.
Pollock N, Williams R. Strategic ethnography and the biography of artefacts. In Enterprise Resource Planning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. Vol. 1-3. IGI Global. 2013. p. 347-376 doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4153-2.ch021
Stewart J, Procter R, Williams R, Poschen M. The Role of Academic Publishers in Shaping the Development of Web 2.0 Services for Scholarly Communication. New Media and Society. 2013;15(3):413-432. doi: 10.1177/1461444812465141
Shen X, Graham I, Williams R, Stewart J. Standards Development as Hybridization. International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research. 2013;11(2):34-45. doi: 10.4018/jitsr.2013070103
Cresswell KM, Slee A, Coleman J, Williams R, Bates DW, Sheikh A. Qualitative analysis of round-table discussions on the business case and procurement challenges for hospital electronic prescribing systems. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(11):e79394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079394
Williams R, Pollock N. Moving beyond the single site implementations study: How (and why) we should study the biography of packaged enterprise solutions. Information Systems Research. 2012 Mar;23(1):1-22. Epub 2011 Apr 8. doi: 10.1287/isre.1110.0352
Monteiro E, Pollock N, Hanseth O, Williams R. From Artefacts to Infrastructures. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). 2012. doi: 10.1007/s10606-012-9167-1
Pollock N, Williams R. Strategic ethnography and the biography of artefacts. In Viscusi G, Campagnolo GM, Curzi Y, editors, Phenomenology, Organizational Politics, and IT Design: The Social Study of Information Systems. IGI Global. 2012. p. 221-250 doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0303-5
Shen X, Graham I, Stewart J, Williams R. Developing an IT standard in China - What lessons can we learn from this? In 2011 7th International Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology, SIIT 2011. 2011. 6083618. (2011 7th International Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology, SIIT 2011). doi: 10.1109/SIIT.2011.6083618
Pollock N, Williams R. Who Decides the Shape of Product Markets? The Knowledge Institutions that Name and Categorize New Technologies. Information and Organisation. 2011 Dec;21(4):194-217. Epub 2011 Sept 9. doi: 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2011.08.001
Williams R, Graham I, Jakobs K, Lyytinen K. China and Global ICT standardisation and innovation. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 2011;23(7):715-724. doi: 10.1080/09537325.2011.592265
Procter R, Williams R, Stewart J, Poschen M, Snee H, Voss A et al. Adoption and Use of Web 2.0 in Scholarly Communications. Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 2010 Sept 13;368(1926):4039-4056. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2010.0155
Pollock N, Williams R. The business of expectations: How promissory organizations shape technology and innovation. Social Studies of Science. 2010 Aug;40(4):525-548. doi: 10.1177/0306312710362275
Coyne R, Ekeus H, Wright M, Stewart J, Travlou P, Williams R. Branded meeting places: Ubiquitous technologies and the design of places for meaningful human encounter. In Inns T, editor, Design for the 21st Century: Interdisciplinary Methods and Findings. London: Ashgate Publishing. 2010. p. 146-159
Pollock N, Williams R. E-infrastructures: How Do We Know and Understand Them: Strategic Ethnography and the Biography of Artefacts. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). 2010;19(6):521-556. doi: 10.1007/s10606-010-9129-4
Lyall C, Williams R, Meagher L. A Short Guide to Developing Interdisciplinary Strategies for Research Groups. 2009. 4 p.
Pollock N, D'Adderio L, Williams R, Grimm C. Post local forms of repair: The (extended) situation of virtualised technical support. Information and Organization. 2009 Oct;19(4):253-276. doi: 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2009.08.001
Shen X, Williams R. 2009高技术发展报告 / 中国科学院: 合成生物学的科学意义和伦理及其社会规制问题. In 北京:科学出版社: 中国科学院. Beijing Science and Technology Publishing House. 2009. (高技术发展报告).
Pollock N, Williams R. The sociology of a market analysis tool: How industry analysts sort vendors and organize markets. Information and Organisation. 2009 Apr;19(2):129-151. doi: 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2009.01.001
Edwards PN, Bowker GC, Jackson SJ, Williams R. Introduction: An Agenda for Infrastructure Studies. Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 2009;10(5):364-374.
Edwards PN, (ed.), Jackson SJ, (ed.), Williams R, (ed.). Special Issue on ‘e-infrastructures’. Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 2009;10(5).
Graham I, Bunduchi R, Gerst M, Williams R. Emergence of Standardisation Processes: Linkage with Users. In Jakobs K, editor, Information Communication Technology Standardization for E-Business Sectors: Integrating Supply and Demand Factors. Hershey: IGI Global. 2009. p. 53-64 doi: 10.4018/978-1-60566-320-3
Pollock N, Williams R. Beyond The ERP Implementation Study: A New Approach To The Study Of Packaged Information Systems: The Biography Of Artifacts Framework. 2009. Paper presented at ICIS 2009, United Kingdom.
Wright M, Ekeus H, Coyne R, Stewart J, Travlou P, Williams R. Augmented duality: overlapping a metaverse with the real world. In ACE '08 Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology. New York: ACM. 2008. p. 263-266 doi: 10.1145/1501750.1501812
Bunduchi R, Graham I, Smart A, Williams R. Homogeneity and heterogeneity in information technology private standard settings - the institutional account. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 2008 Jul;20(4):389-407. doi: 10.1080/09537320802141387
Gerst M, Bunduchi R, Jakobs K, Williams R. Analysing the dynamics of IT innovations development. The case of portals in the automotive industry. 2008. Paper presented at 2008 Annual Conference of the Academy of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Beijing, China.
Pollock N, Williams R. Software and Organisations: The Biography of the Enterprise-Wide System Or How SAP Conquered the World. Routledge, 2008. 320 p. (Routledge Studies in Technology, Work and Organizations). doi: 10.4324/9780203891940
Bunduchi R, Graham I, Williams R. The evolution of IT standards in academic and commercial communities: Grid standardization. International Journal of Quality and Standards. 2008;2(1):40-66.
Anderson S, Hardstone G, Procter R, Williams R. Down in the (Data)base(ment): Supporting Configuration in Organizational Information Systems. In Ackerman MS, Halverson CA, Erickson T, Kellogg WA, editors, Resources, Co-Evolution and Artifacts: Theory in CSCW. Springer London. 2008. p. 221-253. (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). doi: 10.1007/978-1-84628-901-9_9
Mittra J, Williams R. Evolution of the life science industries. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 2007 May 1;19(3):251-255. doi: 10.1080/09537320701281516
Pollock N, Williams R, D'Adderio L. Global software and its provenance: Generification work in the production of organizational software packages. Social Studies of Science. 2007 Apr;37(2):254-280. doi: 10.1177/0306312706066022
Pollock N, Williams R. Technology choice and its performance: Towards a sociology of software package procurement. Information and Organisation. 2007 Jan 1;17(3):131-161. doi: 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2007.05.001
Mittra J, Williams R. Evolution of the life science industries. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 2007;19(3):251-255. doi: 10.1080/09537320701281516
Bunduchi R, Williams R, Graham I, Smart A. XML-based clinical data standardisation in the National Health Service Scotland. Informatics in Primary Care. 2006 Jan 1;14(4):227-233.
Hardstone G, D'Adderio L, Williams R. Standardization, Trust and Dependability. In Clarke K, Hardstone G, Rouncefield M, Somerville I, editors, Trust in Technology: A Socio-Technical Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer. 2006
Pollock N, Williams R. Technology choice and its performance: Towards a sociology of software package procurement. 2006. Paper presented at 27th International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2006, Milwaukee, WI, United States.
Shen X, Williams R. A Critique of China's Utilitarian View of Science and Technology. Science Technology and Society. 2005 Sept;10(2):197-223. doi: 10.1177/097172180501000202
Bunduchi R, Graham I, Smart A, Williams R. The tensions shaping the emergence of standard bodies: The case of a national health informatics standards body. Prometheus. 2005 Jun 1;23(2):149-166. doi: 10.1080/08109020500085544
Graham I, Williams R. The use of management texts: Hammer's reengineering. Scandinavian Journal of Management. 2005 Jun 1;21(2 SPEC. ISS.):159-175. doi: 10.1016/j.scaman.2005.02.009
Williams R, Stewart J, Slack R. Social learning in technological innovation: experimenting with information and communication technologies. Northampton, MA: Elgar, 2005.
Stewart J, Williams R. The wrong trousers ? beyond the design fallacy : social learning and the user. In User involvement in innovation processes. Munich: Profil. 2005. p. 39-71
Spinardi G, Williams R. The governance challenge of breakthrough science and technology. In Lyall C, Tait J, editors, New modes of governance: developing an integrated policy approach to science, technology, risk and the environment. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. 2005. p. 45-66
Bruce A, Lyall C, Tait J, Williams R. Interdisciplinary integration in Europe: the case of the Fifth Framework programme. Futures. 2004 May;36(4):457-470. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2003.10.003
Yin D, (ed.), Williams R, (ed.), Shen X, (ed.), Mingan K, (ed.). Jishu de Shehui Xinchebg. Beijing: Capital Normal University Press, 2004.
Pollock N, Procter R, Williams R. Fitting standard software packages to non-standard organizations: The 'biography' of an enterprise-wide system. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 2003 Sept;15(3):317-332. doi: 10.1080/09537320310001601504
Shen X, Williams R. Jishu de Shehui Xingcheng Guan ji qi dui Zhongguo Xiandaihua de Tiaozhan. Kexue de Shehui Yingxiang. 2003;1:52-6.
Williams R. Jishu Yanjiu yu Jishu de Shehui Xingcheng Guan. Kexue de Shehui Yingxiang. 2003;1:48-51.
Williams R. Introduction. In Sørensen KH, Williams R, editors, Shaping Technology, Guiding Policy: Concepts, Spaces and Tools . Aldershot: Edward Elgar. 2002. p. 3-18
Clarke K, Hartswood M, Procter R, Rouncefield M, Slack R, Williams R. Knife to Skin Time: Process Modelling and New Technology in Medical Work. Health Informatics Journal. 2002;8(1):41-44.
Sorenson KH, (ed.), Williams R, (ed.). Shaping technology, guiding policy: concepts, spaces and tools. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2002. 404 p.
Russell S, Williams R. Social Shaping of Technology: Frameworks, Findings and Implications for Policy, with Glossary of Social Shaping Concepts. In Sørensen KH, Williams R, editors, Shaping Technology, Guiding Policy: Concepts, Spaces and Tools. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. 2002. p. 37-132
Russell S, Williams R. Concepts, Spaces and Tools for Action? Exploring the Policy Potential of the Social Shaping of Technology: Perspective. In Sørensen KH, Williams R, editors, Shaping Technology, Guiding Policy: Concepts, Spaces and Tools. Aldershot: Edward Elgar. 2002. p. 45-66
Bechhofer F, Rayman-Bacchus L, Williams R. The Dynamics of Social Science Research Exploitation. Scottish Affairs. 2001;36:124-155.
Spinardi G, Williams R. Environmental Innovation in Refining and Chemicals. In Ahead of the Curve: Cases of Innovation in Environmental Management. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2001. p. 165-192
S G, Procter R, Williams R. The Politics of Usability: Can One Size Fit All? . In Trenner L, Bawa J, editors, Usability, Politics and New Media. Springer. 2001
Hartswood M, Procter R, Rouncefield M, Slack R, Voss A, Williams R. Building Information Systems as “Universalised Locals”. Knowledge, Technology and Policy. 2001;14(3):90-108.
Slack RS, Williams RA. The dialectics of place and space: On community in the 'Information Age'. New Media and Society. 2000 Sept 1;2(3):313-334.
Voss A, Procter R, Williams R. Innovation in use: Interleaving day-to-day operation and systems development. In Cherkasky T, Greenbaum J, Mambrey P, Pors JK, editors, PDC 2000: PROCEEDINGS OF THE PARTICIPATORY DESIGN CONFERENCE. PALO ALTO: COMPUTER PROFESSIONALS SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. 2000. p. 192-201
Williams R, (Guest ed.). ICT Development and Use in Europe. The Information Society. 2000;16(4):251-328.
Williams R. Public choices and social learning: The new multimedia technologies in Europe. The Information Society. 2000;16(4):251-262. doi: 10.1080/019722400457234
Jaeger B, Slack RS, Williams R. Europe experiments with multimedia: An overview of social experiments and trials. The Information Society. 2000;16(4):277-301.
Williams R. ICT standards setting from an innovation studies perspective. In Jacobs K, Williams R, editors, Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology. Piscataway NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 1999. p. 251-262
Tait J, Williams R. Policy approaches to research and development: Foresight, framework and competitiveness. Science and Public Policy. 1999 Jan 1;26(2):101-112.
Williams R. The social shaping of technology'. In Society on the line: information politics in the digital age. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1999. p. 41-43
Williams R. The National Appropriation of Multimedia. In Williams R, Slack R, editors, Europe Appropriates Multimedia: A study of the National Uptake of Multimedia in Eight European Countries and Japan. Trondheim, Norway: Senter for teknologi og samfunn. 1999. p. 1-19
COST A4 (Project), Slack RS, (ed.), Stewart JK, (ed.), Williams RA, (ed.). The social shaping of multimedia. European Commission, 1999. (Social sciences).
Williams R, (ed.), Slack RS, (ed.). Europe appropriates multimedia: a study of the national uptake of multimedia in eight European countries and Japan. Trondheim: Senter for teknologi og samfunn, 1999. 438 p. (Rapport).
Jacobs K, (ed.), Williams R, (ed.). Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology: SIIT'99 proceedings : 1st ieee conference on standardisation and innovation in information technology, Aachen, September 15-17, 1999. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1999. 270 p.
Slack R, Stewart J, Williams R. 'The Social Shaping of Multimedia'. In Slack R, Stewart J, Williams R, editors, The Social Shaping of Multimedia. Luxembourg: European Commission. 1999. p. 1-16
Clayton AMH, Spinardi G, Williams R. Policies for cleaner technology: a new agenda for government and industry. London: Earthscan, 1999. 310 p.
Procter R, Cashin L, Williams R. Social Learning and New Strategies for the Management of Innovation in Multimedia: A Case-Study of Desk-Top Video-Conferencing. In Slack R, Stewart J, Williams R, editors, The Social Shaping of Multimedia. Luxembourg: European Commission. 1999. p. 155-169
Stewart J, Williams R. The coevolution of society and multimedia technology - Issues in predicting the future innovation and use of a ubiquitous technology. Social science computer review. 1998;16(3):268-282. doi: 10.1177/089443939801600304
Williams R, (ed.), Faulkner W, (ed.), Fleck J, (ed.). Exploring expertise. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1998. 340 p.
Spinardi G, Graham I, Williams R. Electronic commerce and inter-organisational restructuring: barriers to the uses of information technology for BPR. In Management and technology: collected papers from Final Conference of COST A3, Madrid, 12-14 June 1996. Luxembourg: European Commission. 1998. p. 472-84
Faulkner W, Fleck J, Williams R. Exploring expertise: Issues and Perspectives. In Exploring Extertise. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 1998. p. 1-27
Williams R, Proctor R. Trading places: a case study of the formation and deployment of computing expertise. In Williams R, Faulkner W, editors, Exploring expertise. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 1998. p. 197-222
Jakobs K, Procter R, Williams R. Competitive advantage through participation in standards setting? IEE Conference Publication. 1997 Jan 1;(435):370-375.
Jakobs K, Procter R, Williams R. Introducing IT: lessons from case studies of e-mail. IEE Conference Publication. 1997 Jan 1;(435):145-152.
Clausen C, Williams R. The social shaping of computer-aided production management and computer-integrated manufacture. European Commission, 1997. 28 p.
Williams R, Clayton A, Thomson I. 'The implementation of cleaner technology'. Social and Environmental Accountability Journal. 1997;17:9-14.
Williams R. The Social Shaping of a Failed Technology: Mismatch and Tension in the Supply and Use of Computer-Aided Production Management' . In Clausen C, Williams R, editors, The Social Shaping of Computer-Aided Production Management and Computer Integrated Manufacture. Vol. 5. Luxembourg: European Commission. 1997. p. 109-130
Williams R. The Social Shaping of Multimedia. In Kubicek H, Dutton WH, Williams R, editors, The Social Shaping of Information Superhighways: European and American Roads to the Information Society . Frankfurt: Campus Verlag. 1997. p. 299-338
Williams R. Universal solutions or local contingencies? Tensions and contradictions in the mutual shaping of technology and work organisation' . In McLoughlin I, Mason D, editors, Innovation Organizational Change and Technology. London: International Thompson Business Press. 1997. p. 170-185
Kubicek H, Dutton WH, Williams R. The social shaping of information superhighways: European and American roads to the information society. Palgrave Macmillan, 1997.
Jakobs K, Procter R, Williams R. Users and Standardization - Worlds Apart? The Example of Electronic Mail' . Standard View. 1996 Dec;4(4):183-191.
Edge D, Williams R. The social shaping of technology. Research Policy. 1996 Sept;25(6):865-899.
Spinardi G, Graham I, Williams R. A comment on Standish et al: The problem with CALS: Barriers to the development of product data exchange and the US continuous acquisition and life-cycle support programme. International Journal of Production Economics. 1996 Jul 1;44(3):201-206.
Graham I, Spinardi G, Williams R. Diversity in the emergence of electronic commerce. Journal of Information Technology. 1996 Jun;11(2):161-172.
Spinardi G, Graham I, Williams R. EDI and business network redesign: Why the two don't go together. New technology work and employment. 1996 Mar;11(1):16-27.
Graham I, Spinardi G, Williams R. EDI and Business Process Reenginering: Why the Two Don't Go Together. New technology work and employment. 1996 Mar;11(1):16-27.
Jakobs K, Procter R, Williams R. Study of user participation in standards setting. Standard View. 1996 Jan 1;109-110.
Proctor RN, Williams R. Beyond Design: Social Learning and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: some lessons from Innovation Studies'. In Shapiro D, Tauber M, Tranmueller R, editors, The Design of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware Systems. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 1996. p. 445-464. (Human Factors in Information Technology).
Jakobs K, Procter R, Williams R. Electronic messaging - The lifeline of the global enterprise. In IEMC 96 PROCEEDINGS - MANAGING VIRTUAL ENTERPRISES: A CONVERGENCE OF COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTING, AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES. NEW YORK: Centre for Research in Education Inclusion and Diversity. 1996. p. 221-225
GRAHAM I, SPINARDI G, WILLIAMS R, WEBSTER J. THE DYNAMICS OF EDI STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 1995;7(1):320.
Spinardi G, Graham I, Williams R. Technical Data Exchange in the Eurofighter Project. Science and Public Policy. 1995;22(1):29-38.
Williams R, Spinardi G, Graham I. The Social Shaping of Electronic Data Interchange. In Williams R, editor, The Social Shaping of Inter-Organisational Network Systems and Electronic Data Interchange: Proceedings of International Conference. Luxembourg: European Commission. 1995. p. 1-16
Fincham R, Fleck J, Procter R, Scarbrough H, Tierney M, Williams R. Expertise and innovation: information technology strategies in the financial services sector. Oxford (UK): Clarendon Press, 1994. 334 p. (Related Oxford Books).
Webster J, Williams R. Mismatch and Tension: Standard Packages and Non-standard Users' . In Quintas P, editor, Social Dimensions of Systems Engineering: People, Processes, Policies and Software Development . Ellis Horwood. 1993. p. 179-196
Brady T, Tierney M, Williams R. The commodification of industry applications software. Industrial and Corporate Change. 1992 Jan 1;1(3):489-514. doi: 10.1093/icc/1.3.489
Williams R. The Social Shaping of Technology: Research, Concepts and Findings in Great Britain. In Dierkes M, Hoffman U, editors, New Technology at the Outset: social forces in the shaping of technological innovations. Campus Verlag. 1992. p. 31-61
Williams R, Edge D. The Social Shaping of Technology: a Review of UK Research Concepts, Findings, Programmes and Centres. Mitteilungen heft. 1991;8:152-205.
FLECK J, WEBSTER J, WILLIAMS R. DYNAMICS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION - A REASSESSMENT OF PARADIGMS AND TRAJECTORIES OF DEVELOPMENT. Futures. 1990;22(6):618-640.
Technical Committee 9, International Federation for Information Processing, IFIP TC 9 Conference on Social Implications of Home Interactive Telematics, Rijn FV, (ed.), Williams R, (ed.). Concerning home telematics. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1988. 461 p.